Ancient Roots Research presents

The Root of the Tree
of our Fathers

Our paper has been published!

It's now available for free download, here:
"An African American Paternal Lineage
Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree

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A Tree Diagram of A00 Samples tested by FTDNA and SMGF

This is a Neighbor-Joining Tree that I made with the SplitsTree4 program, using 38 markers that all haplotypes had in common.
Other haplogroups were used as outgroups (not shown). Njungo and Fontem are the names of the communities where these samples were collected, both located in the Southwest Region of Cameroon. Two samples collected in Mamfe and Mbetta are noted in parentheses. Some slightly different trees grouped Perry with the Tabi and Techoukwi samples. The people of Fontem belong to the Bangwa ethnic group who speak Ngwe; and the people of Njungo are Mbo who speak the Lekongho or Nkongho local language of the Mbo language family; both use English as their second language.

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A Simplified  Diagram of the A Phylogenetic Tree

Some blogs featuring our research, the paper, and its implications:
(some of these had been embargoed, but are now reinstated)

Debbie Kennett: "Family Tree DNA Conference 2012 - citizen science comes of age"

CeCe Moore: " Citizen Science Helps to Rewrite the Y Chromosome Tree
and Illuminate the Ancestral Roots of African American Project Members

Roberta Estes: "The New Root Haplogroup A00"

Dienekes: " Extremely old (237581 kya) root of human Y-chromosome phylogeny"

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Conference Presentation (slides):
In Search of the Root:
Discovery of a 'Highly Divergent Y Chromosome Lineage'

* Speaking Notes for Slides

illustrating a model of introgression
from an archaic human lineage

Note: this does not portray any real haplogroups
It's a model of the concept, which I created to aid in comprehension.
This diagram was used, with annotations, by Dr. Mike Hammer in his presentation.

The Y-Haplogroup A Project
at Family Tree DNA

Results Table
haplotypes of all project members

New!  Leave your comments! Let us know what you think, ask questions, interact!

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Missing Links: In Search of Human Origins

Missing Links: In Search of Human Origins

This is the story of the search for humanity's origins--from the Middle Ages, when questions of the earth's antiquity first began to arise, through to the latest genetic discoveries that show the interrelatedness of all living creatures.

Mapping Our Ancestors: Phylogenetic Approaches in Anthropology and Prehistory

Mapping Our Ancestors: Phylogenetic Approaches in Anthropology and Prehistory

Much of what we are comes from our ancestors. Through cultural and biological inheritance mechanisms, our genetic composition, instructions for constructing artifacts, the structure and content of languages, and rules for behavior are passed from parents to children and from individual to individual. Mapping Our Ancestors demonstrates how various genealogical or "phylogenetic" methods can be used both to answer questions about human history and to build evolutionary explanations for the shape of history. Anthropologists are increasingly turning to quantitative phylogenetic methods. These methods depend on the transmission of information regardless of mode and as such are applicable to many anthropological questions. In this way, phylogenetic approaches have the potential for building bridges among the various subdisciplines of anthropology; an exciting prospect indeed.

Work in Progress!
Last Updated 3/8/2013
 by Bonnie Schrack